The term cancer encompasses a large class of diseases that have common characteristics. As a general rule, it is about alterations that affect the cells that form a certain tissue.
A) Yes, they begin to reproduce in an uncontrolled way and without a “programmed” natural death, hence the aggressiveness of this pathology.
This change in their behavior comes from a mutation at the genetic level, that is, its genetic material or DNA has been changed.
Likewise, the exact cause has not been found of this variation but we can point out a series of risk factors. For example, physical condition, exposure to radioactive elements or consumption of toxic substances (such as tobacco ).
As well we can find numerous subtypes of cancer, since they can affect almost any cell in our body. In most clinical cases a bulging or malignant tumor is formed due to the abnormal growth of these microorganisms.
On the other hand, you can differentiate two major cancer categories which can lead to confusion. We are talking about metastatic cancer and advanced cancer.
Characteristics of metastatic cancer
Cancer cells can be separated or detached from the initial tumor (origin of the alteration), moving through the tissue. In particular, they are able to reach and use the circulatory devices (both blood and lymph ) and travel to other body regions.
In this way, malignant cells can invade new organs and glands, aggravating the disease. However, new types of microorganisms can be found than those that originated in the primary tumor.
The process by which cancer cells affect new tissues It is called metastasis. Therefore, the patient will have a metastatic cancer.
Symptoms of metastatic cancer
The Signs that allow to identify a cancer of these characteristics they vary depending on the location of the original tumor and the new regions affected. That is, the new signs are associated with the new subtype of underlying cancer. For example, if the cancer affects:
- The bones, the patient will suffer a great ease of fractures and other bone alterations.
- The lungs, the subject will suffer shortness of breath or difficulty breathing normally.
- The liver, jaundice (yellow coloration) and distension of the abdomen are frequent.
- The brain, the person can feel dizzy or headaches continuously.
Diagnosis of metastatic cancer
In these cases the patient may feel new discomfort or during a revision you can find the metastasis. These tests include biopsy, blood and urine tests, and other imaging tests. For example, radiographs, Magnetic Resonances (RM), Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT), etc.
Treatment of metastatic cancer
The medical processes to follow are the common ones for this type of pathologies. As a general rule, we included the surgical interventions, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.
Characteristics of advanced cancer
This cancer subtype has no chance of cure since the treatment can not eliminate it completely. Also, we can differentiate two categories of this disease:
- Localized advanced cancer. Only one tumor appears, the original swelling of the disorder that can not be properly controlled. As a general rule, this category is adopted if the tumor has a large size or is close to vital organs.
- Metastatic advanced cancer. The disease has spread to other body regions due to the process of metastasis. Therefore, the disorder presents the properties associated with the subtype of cancer formed. Neither of the two tumors formed can be treated correctly.
On the other hand, Symptoms or signs that appear more frequently Associated with this pathology are the following:
- Weakness, fatigue or fatigue
- Loss of weight in a limited period of time (without having wished it).
- Pain and swelling of the altered regions.
Diagnosis of advanced cancer
As a general rule, the identification of the pathology It is done through a series of medical exams. We include both physical and laboratory tests ( biopsy , blood analysis, by obtaining images of the altered areas, etc.)
Advanced cancer treatment
Although there is no effective way to completely eliminate this condition, There are different guidelines to follow to alleviate the symptoms and try to slow down their evolution.
These methods include traditional treatments, that is, surgery application, immunotherapy , chemotherapy, radiotherapy, etc.